Technology transfer is the process by which basic science research and fundamental discoveries are developed into practical and commercially relevant applications and products. Technology transfer also includes the transfer of knowledge and intellectual property.
There are several steps to technology transfer process:
* Technology Transfer
* Technology Promotion
* Technology Deployment
* Technology Innovation
* Technology Development
* Technology Research
* Technology Assessment
* Technology Information and communication
* Technology Investment
* Technology Collaboration
* Technology Commercialisation
Technology transfer is one aspect that facilitates technology adoption and uptake. There are many other aspects apart from technology utility and financial viability that determine whether a new technology will be taken up by the market and/or adopted by consumers. Technology transfer is a system that encompasses the social and economic fabric of a country. Where technology has been effectively transferred, there should be a visible change – from the person to the production system as well as compatibility with the needs, in the institutional framework, skills, training, financial capacity, promotion, and active support of endogenous capacity and appreciation of the natural environment of the recipient country.
The adoption and uptake by the market also depends on supporting government policies and institutional frameworks, markets and current trends, as well as consumer behaviour. Therefore, a suitable strategy to ensure effective technology transfer, adoption and uptake is to assess the market needs and potential in addition to the technology potentail and commercial viability. The needs assessment can benefit participatory decision-making that help to determine technology barriers, needs and limitations within the framework of the community resources and capitals.
Developing a strong business case for adoption by the commercial sector is facilitated by use of RETSCREEN while developing community development projects is facilitated using the SURE decision-support system. SURE seeks to define the optimal energy solutions for rural communities that are often under severe resource constrains, and uses a balanced combination of highly technical information, non-technical criteria, and relevant participatory data.